21 Jan Celebrity Endorsement In Malaysia Advertising Essay findwritingservice.com
Celebrity Endorsement In Malaysia Advertising Essay
Advertising started to play an active role in advertising and marketing when it found the development of culture throughout the market in the early 1930s. Superstars acted as spokesperson, so as to advertise and promote a company products, offerings or ides http://star-writers.com/blog/reach-your-goals-with-self-motivation-essay.html. Those celebrities came from the art scene, modelling, sports as well as the entertainment industry (Kambitsis et.al., 2002). Whenever a British actress Lillie Langtry appeared on a offer on Pears Soap in 1893, she started to be the world’s first celebrity endorser http://smartessayrewriter.com/blog/why-it-is-efficient-to-use-our-english-editing-service.
Since radio became commercial in the late 20s and television set was launched in the past due 40s, celebrities started doing commercials (Sherman, 2010). For this reason, celebrity endorsement has become probably the most effective tools in attracting consumers http://cv-review.org/how-to-review-my-cv/. Nearly every celebrity all over the world is doing commercials. For examples Jack Benny, an American actor and comedian endorsed Jell-O, a gelatin dessert item in the 30s and 40s, David Beckham with Pepsi, In the near future Hye Kyo with Laneige, Ashwarya Rai with L’Oreal shampoo, Jackie Chan endorses Kaspersky, and more.
In Malaysia, celebrities are also widely used in advertising. For instance, Erra Fazira endorses Lux, Sarimah with Rejoice, Chef Wan with Vesawit and Siti Nurhaliza with Pepsi. This shows that by having stars to endorse something you won’t only increase the brand image but also the amount of credibility and belief among buyers (Zabid et.al, 2002).
Celebrity endorsement is becoming one of the most employed strategies in promoting a product or a service. For the reason that celebrities are well-known accordingly; they will make the product that’s being endorsed more noticeable. Even though this strategy is the most commonly use, there are several companies in Malaysia remain reluctant how to write a thematic essay to utilize this strategy in promoting its product. Accordingly, this analysis with the title “The Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement in Malaysia” can help the companies by answering questions about the topic. They are:
What are romantic relationship between advertising and superstar endorsement?
What will be the factors that influence the potency of celebrity endorsement?
How effective is the implementation of celebrity endorsement in Malaysia?
Based on the condition statements stated above, the research objectives are:
To review the partnership between advertising and superstar advertising.
To analyze the elements that influences the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement.
To evaluate the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement in Malaysia.
2. Literature Review
Relationship between Marketing and Celebrity Endorsement
Advertising is defined as the promotion of a company’s product or service to drive sales and also to communicate changes of new services or products to the customers (Buzzle.com, 2011). Marketing has become among the essential elements in a business because it does not only assist in increasing the product sales of the merchandise but also creating and retaining its impression among customers. There are several types of advertising which can be implemented by companies so as to promote its products and services typing essay. They are print advertising and marketing, outdoor advertising, public support advertising, surrogate advertising, covert advertising, broadcast advertising and marketing and celebrity advertising and marketing (Buzzle.com, 2011).
Print advertising is a type of advertising that uses printing press such as newspapers, newsletters and mags to convey its message to consumers. Alternatively, outdoor advertising and marketing communicates its communication through promotional display such as for example highway billboards, transit posters and arena positioning (Wisegeek.com, 2011). According to Wisegeek.com (2011), Outdoor Marketing Association of America, Inc. (OAAC) had stated that businesses spent $5.8 billion us dollars on outdoor advertising in 2004. Public support advertising can be an advertising technique that conveys socially relevant communications regarding important matter and social welfare causes like poverty, and deforestation (Buzzle.com, 2011). Meanwhile, surrogate advertising is defined as the procedure of duplicating the manufacturer image of 1 product extensively so that you can promote another item of the same company (Panda, 2005). For instance, companies that produce smoking cigarettes or liquor which are prohibited for legal reasons in some country have to develop other products of the same brand in order to remind persons about their existence available in the market (Buzzle.com, 2011).
According to Targeting-Marketing.com (2011), covert advertising and marketing is presently is the hottest trend to advertise a product. Covert advertising is a type of advertising that incorporated in some entertainment and media stations such as for example movies, sports and TV shows so as to reach its customers. A few of the examples are the overall look on Nokia N97 in “I Gotta Feelin'” music video by Black colored Eyed Peas, and the sponsorship of an America Television show “F.R.My spouse and i.E.N.D.S.” by Nescafe. Another type of advertising is broadcast marketing. Broadcast advertising is a kind of advertising that uses method such as television, radio and net to convey its communication to the people. Here is the most popular advertising approach because it enables the company to reach a wider audience. However, celebrity advertising is the use of a celebrity or a public number for the purpose of selling products.
According to McCracken (1989), celebrity endorsement is thought as a personality who advantages from public reputation and utilizes this acknowledgment with respect to a consumer merchandise by endorsing it to the public (McCracken, 1989). In a nutshell, a celebrity is somebody who is well-known because of his/her achievement specifically in regions of entertainment nacl molar mass such as films, music, writing, or sport. There will be two types of celebrity advertising; celebrity permit and superstar endorsement (Mistry, 2006). Compared to celebrity license, celebrity endorsement is the hottest strategy in promoting products today. Celebrity endorsement is when celebrities give his/her expert view regarding the product, become the spokesperson for a product, or just being associated with a particular item (Seno and Lucas, 2007). However, according to Kamins (1989) celebrity endorsement may also include the non-celebrities like a typical consumer, a product professional professional, or a firm president. Typical buyer endorser is an ordinary person who does not have any special knowledge about the product but has recently purchased and used the product beforehand. On the other hand, a product expert is normally a person or an organization that possesses an excellent knowledge regarding the merchandise (Zabid et.al., 2002).
Celebrity vs. Non-Celebrity Effectiveness
According to Seno and Lucas (2007), a research has found that in comparison to other type of endorsers such as for example typical buyer and the professional expert, celebrities are the most reliable individual to attract clients. In contrast, Tom et.al (1992) said that non-stars endorsers are far better compared to celebrity endorsers. It is because with non-celebrity endorsers, it allows the company to regulate and create the characters that is appropriate for the product and the target target audience. Besides that, these heroes are not allowed to endorse any other product. On the other hand, celebrity endorsers had already created their own people therefore; the company is unable to control them.
Differences were found in the cognitive responses. Even so, there is absolutely no statistically factor in attitudes towards marketing and the intention of purchasing the endorsed merchandise in the superstar and non-celebrity endorsement (Mehta 1994).
Factors that affect the potency of Celebrity Endorsement
There are amount of factors that influence the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement. Types of the factors are celebrity performance, celebrity attractiveness, superstar credibility, celebrity information, multiple endorsements, celebrity reputation, celebrity availability, celebrity-product match, and more. However, in this study only many of these elements will be discussed.
In the context of the research, celebrity performance identifies the achievement of the celebrity in their chosen profession. This could refer to the achievements of the celebrity in music or movies, the performance level of athlete in sports and more. When a celebrity does not do in acceptably by customers, the effectiveness of the endorsement will decline (Agrawal and Kamakura, 1995). In contrast, if the celebrity effectiveness is increasing, the potency of the endorsement will also increase.
Since there is always a pairing between the brand and the celebrity established by consumers, adverse information regarding the celebrity may affect the company negatively (Erdogan and Baker, 2000). For example, Tiger Wood is definitely known as the endorser of Nike. However, because of a number of news report about his personal lifestyle, Nike shed over four percent of its aggregate industry benefit (Knittel and Stango, 2009). This demonstrates
a negative perception in regards to a celebrity will decrease the level of the potency of the endorsement. Hence, it’ll bring about a loss for the company.
Chao et.al (2005) has mentioned that celebrity attractiveness in one of the factor that may determine the successfulness of celebrity endorsement. According to Kahle and Homer (1985), actually attractive endorsers are generally viewed and extra preferable by consumers compared to the less attractive endorsers. Consequently, by having attractive celebrity endorsers, it will boost the effectiveness of the superstar endorsement. For example, when Laneige made a decision to alter its endorser from Jeon Ji Hyun to a prettier and renowned Korean actress, knowing of the presence of the company starts to increase among consumers. This contributes to a rise in sales of the product (Amore Pacific Corporation, 2009).
The most significant aspect in celebrity endorsement is credibility. Relating to Miciak and Shanklin (1994), a study built among 43 advertisement agencies and companies, it really is believed that the most crucial scope of credibility are trustworthiness and the know-how of the superstar with the product that’s being endorsed. For instance, with the credibility of Amitabh Bachchan’s, Cadbury’s business which was declining as a result of controversy possesses been revived and again on track (Taleja, 2010).
There are two situations of multiple endorsements that happen to be always been debated. They are 1) an individual brand hiring multiple superstars and 2) an individual celebrity endorsing multiple brands. For example, Britney Spears, customers may bear in mind her as Pepsi’s endorser but they might not keep in mind her as McDonald’s or Toyota Vios’s endorser in 2000. Another exemplory case of multiple endorsements is usually “Clear for Males” uses Christiano Ronaldo and Rain as endorsers.
The celebrity-product match/match is also referred to as the match-up hypothesis. It refers to the synchronization of the meet between your celebrity endorser and the product that is getting endorsed (Till and Busler, 2000). Relating to Friedman et.al (1978), Erdogan and Baker (2000), and Till and Busler (2000), celebrity-product fit is the key function of the potency of celebrity endorsement. For the reason that with the proper celebrity with the right personality, the message can be convey to the consumers effectively. For example, Pepsi’s target market is the youth. Consequently, by sponsoring Michael Jackson World concert in 1993, Pepsi has the capacity to reach its marketplace easily.
3.1 Theoretical Framework
Figure 1: Factor’s that Influences the potency of Celebrity Endorsement
3.2 Path Analysis
The main reason for this research is to analyze the factors the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement aswell as to evaluate the effectiveness of superstar endorsement in Malaysia. From the literature review above, it is found that there are 6 main factors that influence the effectiveness of implementing celebrity endorsement technique to attract clients. By understanding these elements, the effectiveness could be identified. Hence, the potency of the implementation of this strategy Malaysia could be investigated.
3.3 Research Design
3.4 Data Collection
Data is the most important element needed to make a research. For the reason that without the existence of relevant info, the objectives and purpose of a research can’t be met easily. There are two types of data; primary info and secondary data. Principal data is the original or first-hand materials that has not really been interpreted by anyone before. It usually is further divided into two categories; qualitative data and quantitative info. Qualitative data is described as data which can be categorized according to its characteristics such as gender and nationality. Alternatively, quantitative data (also referred to as numerical data) are info which can be measured on a numerical level. Secondary data is the information collected from various other resources such as for example books, journals, review articles, and newspaper which relates to the research.
For this research, main data can be acquired through questionnaires, emphasis group or observation. Questionnaire can be a couple of questions given to respondents in order to get data which relates to the research topic. Alternatively, focus group is a form of qualitative research when a group of people are asked about their perceptions, thoughts, beliefs and attitudes towards something, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging (Henderson, 2009). Meanwhile, observation identifies a technique where the behaviour of research topics is watched and documented without the direct contact.The most efficient primary research because of this study is questionnaire. This is due to questionnaires enable researcher to acquire data from the prospective group efficiently.
In the questionnaire, the problems are designed as open ended queries and close ended concerns. Open ended questions are questions that expected the respondents to attach their view towards the question. In the mean time, the close ended queries required the respondents to choose, or rate the concerns accordingly. Because of this topic, both issues are suggested to be asked in the questionnaire. By having these two types of questions in this questionnaire, it allows researcher to collect facts including both qualitative and quantitative info. However, there is absolutely no primary analysis has been carried out by the researcher however. Therefore, no primary data are available.
For secondary research, info are acquired from journals, literature, and website posted by others. In developing this study, number of journals, articles or blog posts, books and websites has been known. However, only many of them are being used in developing this exploration.
This research targets the sampling group of small adult and adult from age 18 to 35 years old. This assortment has been chosen because they’re the group of folks who constantly make their individual decision on investing in a service or product. Besides that, this range is chosen because they are the group of people who are always be influenced by the stars. By having them as the prospective segment, research can be done easily and effectively.
In this research, the measurement scales that will be selected will be the likert scale and the nominal level. According to Proctor (2003), nominal scale permits an object to end up being positioned in one and only one of a set of mutually exclusive classes without implied ordering such as for example gender; female or male. Alternatively, likert level is a scaling technique that describes the quantitative worth to qualitative data in order to make it amenable to statistical examination such as highly agree, consent, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree (BusinessDictionary.com, 2011). Because of this research, the nominal level is used to gauge the time and gender of the targeted respondents and the likert scale is used to gauge the consumers’ perception towards superstar endorsement.
Due to the nature of the research, it should be said that the study might have been done more effectively if more resources for example text book could possibly be obtain to support the research. This research title is very limited in text publication provided in KBU School Library but there are more in the Emerald Insight internet site. As a way to obtain top quality journals from right now there, users are advised to spend the membership payment online. However, KBU does offer student the usage of Emerald Insight website since the college had already paid the fee, but students are allowed to access to the web site within the school premises.
Furthermore, this research just used secondary info collection. The majority of the secondary data come from other authors’ thoughts and opinions gain from their findings. So, the views from other authors do not mean they happen to be aligned with the whole population’s opinions in this world. Due to this problem, the accuracy of this research had reduced. Besides that, as a result of limited time, no main study has been done. Therefore, all information obtainable in this research does not meet the reason for this study which is to study the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement in Malaysia.
Before conducting the research, a researcher has to be sure that the study topic, objectives and benefits are clearly explain in order to avoid the deception on the study. Besides that, all the information distributed by the respondents such as for example name, age, contact quantity and house address are non-public and confidential. Hence they must be protected and cannot be reveled or sold elsewhere. Respondents are also permitted to not to provide their particulars or facts before answering the concerns to protect their privacy if forced.